Efficacy and safety of the hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegibin patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC): ERIVANCE BCC study update.
Aleksandar Sekulic, MD, PhD
Background: The ERIVANCE BCC study is the pivotal trial of vismodegib (GDC-0449), a first-in-class small-molecule inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling, for treatment of locally advanced (laBCC) and metastatic BCC (mBCC), for whom there are no other effective therapy options. The study met the primary endpoint of overall response rate by independent review (Sekulic, Melanoma Res 2011). Here we report a 6-mo update of investigator-assessed (I-A) efficacy and safety endpoints as of May 26, 2011.
Methods: This multicenter, international, nonrandomized 2-cohort study enrolled patients (pts) with laBCC (deemed inoperable or for whom surgery would be significantly disfiguring), and mBCC pts with RECIST-measurable disease. Pts received 150 mg oral vismodegib daily.
Results: 104 pts (71 laBCC/33 mBCC) enrolled at 31 sites in the US, Europe, and Australia. I-A efficacy endpoints are shown in the table. One-year survival rate was 77.3% (95% CI 62.48–92.09%) for mBCC and 93.1% (95% CI 86.49–99.63%) for laBCC. Adverse events (AEs) in >30% of pts were muscle spasms, alopecia, dysgeusia, weight decrease, fatigue, nausea, and amenorrhea (33.3%; 2/6 pts). Serious AEs were reported in 32 pts (31%). No additional fatal AEs were reported since the prior data cut (n=7, 7%; none considered related to vismodegib).
Conclusions: This 6-mo update of I-A efficacy and safety endpoints from the ERIVANCE BCC study supports the significant clinical benefit of vismodegib in both laBCC and mBCC reported at the primary analysis. Median DOR and PFS increased numerically with follow-up. The AE profile was consistent with the prior data cut. These results further support the efficacy of vismodegib for treatment of advanced BCC.
A phase Ib study of CUDC-101, a multitargeted inhibitor of EGFR, HER2, and HDAC, in patients with advanced head and neck, gastric, breast, liver, and non-small cell lung cancer.
Background: CUDC-101 is a small molecule EGFR/HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase and HDAC inhibitor that has shown promising activity in cancer cell lines and tumor xenograft models. A previous Phase 1 study showed 275 mg/m2 to be the maximum tolerated dose when given daily for 5 days every 2 weeks (QDx5). Dose limiting toxicity included transient creatinine elevation. This expansion Phase 1b study was conducted to further evaluate safety and tolerability of the QDx5 and of a three dose per week (3x/week) schedule for 3 weeks every 4 weeks.
Methods: Eligible patients (pts) ≥18 years with advanced breast, gastric, head and neck, NSCLC or liver cancer (n = 10/tumor type); adequate marrow and organ function; and an ECOG PS ≤2 were assigned to receive CUDC-101 (275 mg/m2) on QDx5 or 3x/week schedule. NSCLC patients required documented EGFR exon 19 or 21 mutation/deletion with recent acquired resistance to erlotinib. Study parameters included safety (CTCAE v.3), antitumor response (RECIST v1.1), PK (blood and urine) and PD (tumor biopsy and CTC) assessments.
Results: A total of 46 pts were treated (23/dose schedule), including 25 (54%) males, mean age 62 yrs, PS 0/1/2 (33/56/11%), and a median of 3 prior regimens (range, 0-7). The overall incidence and severity of treatment-related AEs were similar between the 2 dose schedules, including fatigue, transiently increased creatinine, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, anemia and asthenia, each occurring in <20% of all pts and mostly Grade ≤ 2. Grade 3 AEs were reported in 4 pts. Overall, 15 (33%) pts had SD as their best response: 4 pts had SD for >14 weeks, including 1 with head and neck (QDx5), and 2 with liver (1 lasting 47 weeks) and 1 gastric cancer (all 3 on 3x/week). Paired tumor biopsies were available for one pt showing target inhibition. CTC and PK analyses are ongoing.
Conclusions: CUDC-101 was well tolerated using either dosing schedule, with preliminary evidence of antitumor activity. The more convenient 3x/week schedule was selected for an ongoing Phase 1 combination study.
A phase IB/randomized phase II study of gemcitabine (G) plus placebo (P) or vismodegib (V), a hedgehog (Hh) pathway inhibitor, in patients (pts) with metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC): Interim analysis of a University of Chicago phase II consortium study.
Daniel V. Catenacci, MD
Background: Sonic Hh (SHh), the ligand for the Hh pathway, is over-expressed in >80% of PC. V, a small molecule antagonist of the Hh signaling pathway, has activity in preclinical PC models. Methods: We conducted a multi-center, placebo-controlled, phase IB/randomized phase II trial of GV or GP. Eligible pts, KPS 80-100, had previously untreated metastatic PC, or had completed adjuvant therapy > 6 months (mo) prior. Primary endpoint: progression-free survival (PFS). Correlatives: serial SHh serum levels; serial contrast perfusion CT imaging. To allow for early stopping due to lack of efficacy, a planned interim analysis was performed after approximately 50% of the expected number of PFS events occurred. The protocol stipulated that the trial would be terminated if the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis were the trial to continue (conditional power) was <10%. All pts received G 1000mg/m2 over 30 minutes, days (D) 1, 8, 15, Q28D. Pts, stratified by KPS (80 v 90/100), and disease status (newly-diagnosed/recurrent), were randomized to V (150 mg PO daily) or P. For pts on P, cross-over was allowed at progression. Results: 70 evaluable pts (V/P 35/35) enrolled at 12 sites 2/10-6/11. Pt characteristics: median age 63/63 (range 49-79/48-82); KPS 80: 8/8; 90: 12/14; 100: 15/13. Grade 3/4 toxicity (%pts): neutropenia 20/26; hyponatremia 3/11; fatigue 9/6; hyperglycemia 14/6; elevated alkaline phosphatase 9/11. Response (%): complete 0/3, partial 0/11, stable disease 49/31. Median PFS: 3.7/2.4 mo (95% CI: 2.4-4.6/1.9-3.7; adjusted HR 0.92 [0.52-1.64]). Upon progression/unblinding, 23 GP pts crossed over to GV. Median overall survival (OS): 6.3/5.4 mo (95% CI:4.9-7.8/4.2-8.0, adjusted HR 0.97, [0.47-2.01]). 1-year survival (%): 24/24. Laboratory and radiological correlatives will be presented.
Conclusions: GV has an acceptable toxicity profile. This trial did not meet criteria for futility at this interim analysis. The study is expected to complete accrual of 112 pts in February 2012. The final analysis will be reported after 90 events. Funded by NCI N01-CM-62201.
A first-in-human, phase Ib combination study to assess safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of a hedgehog inhibitor, GDC-0449, with a Notch inhibitor, RO4929097, in patients with advanced sarcoma.
Mrinal M. Gounder
Background: Aberrant Hedgehog and Notch signaling is seen in sarcoma and anti-tumor activity is enhanced by inhibiting both pathways. This first in man Phase Ib study evaluated safety and efficacy of the combination of GDC-0449 (G), a smoothened inhibitor with RO4929097 (R), a gamma-secretase/notch inhibitor.
Methods: The study evaluated fixed dose G (150 mg qd) for 21 days followed by G + R at either 10 mg (level 1) or 15 mg (level 2) QD. At MTD pts were evaluated with G + R (without “lead in” G) or single agent R. Pre and post treatment tumor biopsies were obtained to assess notch and hedgehog inhibition. PK was assessed for each drug. Key eligibility: advanced sarcoma, ECOG ≤ 2, age ≥ 18 and prior therapies ≤ 4. RECIST response was assessed Q6 wks.
Results: 34 pts had a median age of 53 yrs (23-78), median priors 3 and various histologies [liposarcoma (7), chondrosarcoma (7), leiomyosarcoma (4), osteosarcoma (2), GIST (2) and other (12)]. No DLT was seen. Common (≥10 %) grade ≤3 toxicity was hypophosphatemia (18%). Systemic exposure (AUC0-24 and Cmax) of G was similar to established studies (not shown). AUC0-24 and Cmax of R was significantly lower (~70%) when administered with G (Table). However, measurement of unbound, free drug (Cfree) of R showed comparable levels between single agent R and G + R, but not when G was a “lead in” (Table). Target inhibition of the notch pathway (cleaved notch) and pAkt was observed in matched tumor biopsies with both arms. Durable SD was seen in both arms: myxoid chondrosarcoma (56 wks), liposarcoma (24+ wks), clear cell (21+ wks), desmoid (17+ wks), spindle cell (15+ wks) and chondrosarcoma (13+ wks). Conclusions: The combination of G+R is well tolerated and the RP2D is G 150 mg qd and R 15 mg qd without a “lead in” G. Despite reduction in total levels of R in the combination, free drug was similar and inhibits target. Disease stability was seen with R and R + G. Further clinical development of notch and hedgehog inhibitors in sarcomas is warranted
GDC-0449 in patients with advanced chondrosarcomas: A French Sarcoma Group (FSG)/French and U.S. National Cancer Institutes phase II collaborative study.
Background: Chondrosarcomas (CS) exhibit a strong activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling which plays a crucial role in cartilage tumorigenesis. Preclinical data show that hedgehog blockade reduces strongly chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and tumour size. GDC-0449 is a small-molecule antagonist of the Hh pathway. Methods: This is a multicentric single-arm phase 2 clinical trial based on two-stage Simon’s design which assesses safety and efficacy of GDC-0449 in patients (pts) with advanced CS. All pts had to have documented progressive disease (PD) as per RECIST 1.1 before study entry. Pts receive GDC-0449 150mg (oral route), daily until PD or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint is the 6-month non-PD rate according to RECIST. Based on the following hypotheses: 20% 6-month non-PD rate (H0), 40% acceptable 6-month non-PD rate (H1), 10% type I error rate, 90% power, a total of 37 assessable pts are necessary (17 for the first stage + 20 for the second stage). Following the inclusion of the first 17 pts, if ≥ four pts are progression-free at 6 months, the accrual will continue. In order to account for not assessable pts (+/- 10%), 41 pts will be recruited. Accrual started in February 2011 in six centers of the FSG.Results: As of January 24 2012, 40 pts (28 males, 12 females) have been included in the study. Median age is 59 years (30-86). The most frequent histological subtype is conventional CS (n=32). Twenty eight pts (70%) had grade 1 or 2 adverse events (AE) possibly related to the drug whereas 3 pts (7.5%) had grade 3 or 4 AE. The planned interim statistical analysis performed after central histological and radiological review showed that four patients out of the first 17 evaluable patients had stable disease indicating that GDC-0449 had reached the primary endpoint to justify continuing accrual after the 1st step of the study. 15 pts are still on treatment. Molecular analyses are available for 21 pts. No mutation of SMO was detected. qRT-PCR experiments andPTCH sequencing are ongoing. Conclusions: GDC-0449 is well tolerated and shows some activity in a subset of pts with advanced CS. Final clinical and molecular data will be presented at the meeting.